Archive for July, 2008

Slower is Faster in D.C.

One of the themes readers will discover in Traffic is the idea that slower can be faster. Ramp meters on highway entrances, for example, keep the mainline flow going more smoothly by temporarily holding up drivers on the ramps. The individual driver suffers a moment of time loss, but the whole system moves better.

I’m in D.C. for the day, and I’ve been interested to note that an idea that’s had success in places like England’s M25 motorway is being introduced here. It’s called “variable speed limits” (wait, aren’t they all variable, you’re asking?), and the basic idea is that when a section of highway has become congested, rather than having upstream vehicles simply drive at full speed into the gelling pack, those drivers are given instructions to drive at specific speeds, lower than the typical speed limit. Instead of driving into a stop-and-go mess (in which a lot of time and fuel is wasted stopping and restarting), following cars approach at a slower, smoother pace. When the new speeds are obeyed (in the U.K. they’ve mounted cameras to enforce this), engineers have found they can achieve greater “throughput” through bottlenecks.

It’s counterintuitive, but slower is faster. As individual drivers, we pursue our immediate interest, which is to get ahead as quickly as possible. But in traffic, this works against the system as a whole. As Phil Goodwin once described it in another context, “It is one of those cases where Adam Smith’s individuals pursuing their own best interests do not add up to Jeremy Bentham’s greatest good for the greatest number.” These sorts of initiatives, which are lumped under the heading of “ITS,” are just one of the ways we can “think,” and not build, our way out of congestion.

Posted on Thursday, July 31st, 2008 at 6:40 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Are American Drivers Driving More Safely?

The last time the U.S. saw a substantial drop in traffic fatalities was 1974, when the double whammy of the recession and the 55 mph speed limit (a reaction to the fuel shortage) saw the number of fatalities drop by some 9000 (it’s still debated to what extent this had to do with the economy and to what extent it had to do with the speed limit).

But this year, which promises to see the first annual drop in vehicle miles traveled in 28 years, is also shaping up, if trends continue, to see fatalities drop below 40,000 for the first time since 1961.

This comes from a new preliminary report from Michael Sivak, head of the Human Factors division at the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute. What’s even more interesting, notes Sivak, is that the drop in fatalities we’re seeing seems to exceed what we might expect based on the drops in fuel consumption and miles driven. It suggests a fascinating trend: U.S. drivers might not only be driving less, but driving differently.

Sivak, whose work (especially this one) has been an influence in Traffic, points out several factors that may underlie this. For one, the mileage reduction has been greater on rural highways, which are statistically riskier. Also, he suggests, the mileage of lower-income drivers, who are also statistically over-involved in crashes, may be have disproportionately dropped. And more people may be driving more slowly to save fuel, further reducing the risk of a fatal crash. I might even suggest another possible factor: Larger, higher consumption vehicles like SUVs and pickups — which pose a greater risk to other drivers — seem to be being driven less, which could also improve things for everyone.

There’s more parsing of the data to come from Sivak, so stay tuned…

Posted on Thursday, July 31st, 2008 at 6:23 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Dutch Cycle Law

Astute listener Susan heard me talking (briefly) about Dutch bicycling on the Leonard Lopate Show and pointed out something interesting I neglected to mention: The existence of a law that puts a higher burden of responsibility on the car driver in crashes involving cars and cycles.

As John Pucher at Rutgers notes in a report, “motorists are generally assumed to
be legally responsible for most collisions with cyclists unless it can be proven that the cyclist
deliberately caused the crash. Having the right of way by law does not excuse motorists from
hitting cyclists, especially children and elderly cyclists.
” (my italics).

One would intuitively think this would lead to a greater caution amongst the part of drivers (who are, after all, the only ones operating heavy machinery), and thus more safety for cyclists, and I wonder if there’s any state law in the U.S. that has anything remotely similar (I would suspect not). But I’m also curious about any good studies about the safety rate of Dutch cyclists before and after the law, which I believe was passed in the late 1990s. Anyone seen anything?

Posted on Thursday, July 31st, 2008 at 5:36 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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I’m on Day Two of the tour, and in the wake of some of the media coverage, I’ve been getting loads of great emails — unfortunately doing all the media has left me with little time to do anything else. But thanks to those who’ve written and I will get back to you …

In the meantime here’s a quick roundup of what’s been going on:

A brief, and slightly unnerving, bit on the Today Show yesterday…

A great write-up in USA Today…

An interview with Leonard Lopate on WNYC…

A segment on ABC’s Nightline I’ve not even had a chance to watch yet, unfortunately shot on that same day I had the weird summer cold…

There’s more, and more to come… but the streets of Boston await!

Posted on Wednesday, July 30th, 2008 at 6:04 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Passengers Are Good For You

Amidst all the talk of ABS, ESC, and smart headlights that follow curving roads comes a reminder of a simpler in-car safety device: Passengers.

As Chris Lee and Mohamed Abdel-Aty, in the civil engineering departments of the University of Windsor and the University of Central Florida, respectively, report in a paper forthcoming in Accident Analysis & Prevention, drivers who had passengers in their cars were less likely to be involved in a crash.

They reached this conclusion after studying five years’ worth of crash data, linked to inductive loop readings, for a stretch of Interstate 4 in Orlando, Florida, picking out random involved drivers from crashes. Among 2817 crashes, 62% drove alone and 38% carried passengers (I know you’re thinking that more people drive alone so why wouldn’t there more be crashes by single drivers, but as a way to estimate exposure they used the sample of non-cited drivers). There’s all sorts of interesting observations here (drivers who were alcohol-impaired tended not to have passengers), drivers who had passengers seemed to wear seat-belts more often, and also that crashes tended to be less severe among cars having passengers (which may indicate a heightened sense of caution due to the responsibility of having other people in the car; they do caution they’re unable to state the speed of other crash-involved vehicles not chosen in sampling).

The argument has been raised that passengers serve as a distraction for drivers, but these findings add further evidence to the pro-passenger side: Passengers not only act as a second set of eyes, they help keep us awake, provide feedback to potential safety gaps in our own driving (what you might call a ‘backseat driver’), and may increase our sense of responsibility on the road. All these seemingly balance out or overcome the potential distractions they may cause.

The big exception here, of course, is teens, whose crash risk tends to increase with each passenger of a similar age.

Posted on Monday, July 28th, 2008 at 2:28 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic Ahead

Book officially released tomorrow, though spies in the Windy City report copies are on the street…

P.S. Apparently the interview I did with Terry Gross for Fresh Air will air today, Monday July 28th. I had a weird summer cold that day but it was still great to be interviewed by someone I’ve been listening to for years.

Posted on Monday, July 28th, 2008 at 10:56 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Interchanges We Can Believe In

From an essay called “The Post-Carbon Highway,” by Geoffrey Thun and Kathy Velikov, in a jam-packed little book called Fuel, I just came across this interesting nugget, about the 401 highway in Toronto: “There are approximately 160 off-ramp interchanges along the 401. In total, approximately 8000 acres of land is underutilized as a result of its spatial isolation by the interchange configuration.”

Ever since J.G. Ballard’s novel Concrete Island, in which a man crashes and is stranded in an urban highway interchange, I’ve been fascinated by these dead zones, huge swaths of territory that we blindly whisk past. Thun and Velikov have their own ideas of what to do with them, but a few other ideas: Plant victory gardens of ethanol producing corn. Install turbines that capture the air generated by exiting vehicles. Put versions of Robert Smithson’s land-art sculpture the “Spiral Jetty” insider their clover-leaf loops. And didja know, by the way, that the weird little triangular bit of space between the highway and the off-ramp is called, rather ominously, the “gore area.” (nothing to do with crashes, but still…)

Posted on Sunday, July 27th, 2008 at 9:19 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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There’s Always the 7 Train…

Jimmy Rollins, the Philadelphia Phillies MVP shortstop, was benched recently at Shea Stadium in a game against the Mets for being late to the park.

His reason? Traffic.

From Sports Illustrated: Rollins claimed he left the Le Parker Meridien Hotel on West 57th shortly after the team bus, but got caught in traffic.

“I did the same thing I do all the time. Usually 10 minutes after the bus, I drive myself. But you can’t change lights,” said Rollins, who didn’t apologize to his teammates.”

Had NYC’s congestion charging been approved, Rollins might have made it in time. Or he could have just taken the bus.

Posted on Friday, July 25th, 2008 at 8:32 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Stopping Occasions…

Via Design Observer, a good parody of corporate design vis a vis the Stop Sign. I’d also love to see a parody film of a traffic study…

Posted on Friday, July 25th, 2008 at 7:42 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Crossfire in the Crosswalks

There’s been a lot of news about conservative commentator (e.g., Crossfire) Robert D. Novak’s recent (non-fatal) striking of a pedestrian in Washington, D.C. There’s a lot to mull over there: The victim, for example, was 86, and it’s older people who disproportionately get struck on foot in traffic. The driver is himself 77, and older drivers (drivers over 65 will number 40 million by 2020) are right up there with teens for risk factors on the road (for different reasons).

The fact that Novak claimed not to have known he struck the man would imply he was either distracted by a cell-phone conversation, or perhaps lacks the sufficient situational awareness to even be on the roads.

In either case, Novak walked away with a $50 fine — and it’s unclear if this would have been any different had the man been killed (it often doesn’t matter under “accidental” deaths — some mystery writer once used this in a book as the perfect way to murder someone). One thing that stands out is a story from last year about D.C. Councilwoman Mary Cheh’s attempts, in the wake of a rash of pedestrian fatalities, to raise the penalty for striking a pedestrian to $500 (not that this would have much difference for Novak). Ironically, this was just touched upon again last week, with a plan as well to raise the number of points added to one’s driving record (and please do note the earlier “traffic school” entry).

Posted on Thursday, July 24th, 2008 at 4:20 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Sounding One’s Own Horn III

A lot of write-ups are starting to come in, and these will be listed in a more permanent fashion over at the book site,, but among some recent notices…

Discover says… “Follow the author on an engrossing (and heavily footnoted) tour through the neuroscience of highway illusions, the psychology of late merging, and other existential driving dilemmas.”

While Best Life opines, “Reading Vanderbilt’s book is a bit like a bump-and-go drive around the world with Malcolm Gladwell as your passenger.”

Over at the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, the word is: “Delightful… Vanderbilt … provides an engaging, informative, psychologically savvy account of the conscious and unconscious assumptions of individual drivers — and the variations in “car culture” around the world.”

Meanwhile, here’s a nice write-up from Mary Wisnewski, the transportation reporter for the
Chicago Sun-Times

At Streetsblog, one of my daily must-reads, I posted some off-the-cuff remarks on “motorist sociopathy”…

Metropolis magazine offers: “If politicians want to overcome the complexity of transportation problems, they will need to muster a lot more creativity and flexibility than they have thus far. They will need to look at the example of other countries with an open mind. They will need to think about infrastructure but also about human psychology. Traffic could be their textbook.”

Posted on Thursday, July 24th, 2008 at 1:40 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic on the Road

As I put this up a while ago, on the eve of the tour I’ll repost it as there’s been a few small changes. If I’m coming through one of your locales, please don’t hesitate to get in touch (it’s really just a media tour — no readings, but I may be back through at some point). If you’re a journalist or radio/tv producer and would like to set something up, please contact Gabrielle Brooks at Knopf.

Here’s the schedule as it stands so far… and more news to come as it develops:

Monday, July 28 and 29 NEW YORK (Book released)
Wednesday, July 30 BOSTON
Thursday, July 31 WASHINGTON, D.C.
Monday, August 4 NYC/MINNEAPOLIS
Tuesday, August 5 MINNEAPOLIS
Wednesday, August 6 CHICAGO
Thursday, August 7 TORONTO
Friday, August 8 ATLANTA
Tuesday, August 12 SEATTLE
Wednesday, August 13 SEATTLE
Thursday, August 14 SAN FRANCISCO
Friday, August 15 LOS ANGELES
Monday, August 18 LOS ANGELES

Monday, August 25 DUBLIN, IRELAND
Tuesday, August 26 LONDON, ENGLAND
Wednesday, August 27 LONDON, ENGLAND
Thursday, August 28 LONDON, ENGLAND

Posted on Thursday, July 24th, 2008 at 1:03 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Trouble with Traffic School

Unlike Nicole Richie, I’ve never been to traffic school, that strange institution, found particularly in California, where errant drivers go as penance for DUIs (e.g., Richie) and other offenses and, rather bizarrely, to get points and convictions taken off your license (if only there was a “burglary school” for thieves who wanted to remove some blemishes from their criminal record). I don’t know if they’re anything like this skit, but the sense I’ve always gotten from visiting the websites (for “Improv Traffic School” or “Singles Traffic School”) and reading some of the articles , is that they’re light on actual education and filled with bored people merely trying to lower their insurance rates.

The question is: Are people really learning anything in these schools? Are they capable of learning something? In their excellent book Mistakes Were Made, psychologists Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson tell an interesting story about a traffic school: “As participants went around the room, reporting the violations that had brought them there, a miraculous coincidence occurred: Not one of them was responsible for breaking the law. They all had justifications for why they were speeding, had ignored a stop sign, ran a red light, or made an illegal U-turn.” People seemed unable to overcome the “cognitive dissonance” between their image of themselves as a good driver and the fact they had done something stupid or illegal.

A new study (via IIHS) by Michael Gebers of the California DMV, titled “A traffic safety evaluation of California’s traffic violator school citation dismissal policy,” updating earlier research, shows that traffic schools seem to have an unintended consequence: They raise a driver’s crash risk.

As IIHS notes, “despite their lower initial crash risk, traffic school drivers had a crash rate about 5 percent higher than that of convicted drivers during the year following the citation.” There are other problems: The policy of removing points and convictions from a driver’s record “reduces the ability to predict, or calibrate, the future accident expectancies” of those drivers by masking their true driving record. By lowering those drivers’ insurance rates, some drivers without convictions may actually end up paying more, subsidizing the would-be Nicole Richies of the world (some 1.2 million drivers’ citations are dismissed this way every year). Strangely, the DMV itself has called for the schools to be “abolished” or greatly restricted (and if “traffic schools” were to exist, shouldn’t the DMV itself be running them?)

The study reminded me of another, in The Lancet, by Donald Redelmeier, Robert Tibsharani, and Leonard Evans, which found that receiving a conviction for a traffic offense was something of a life-saver: “The risk of a fatal crash in the month after a conviction was about 35% lower than in a comparable month with no conviction for the same driver.” (the effect dropped after that).

Convictions, after all, are a form of feedback, however inexact, pointing out a driver’s mistakes, inducing caution. How does knowing these can be rinsed off of one’s record do anyone any good? I’d like to hear from any pro-traffic school people, or indeed stories from any traffic school attendees.

Posted on Thursday, July 24th, 2008 at 11:52 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Traffic of Traffic

Koen Wastijn, an artist living in Brussels, recently sent me the above image, of his latest work, “The Traffic of Traffic,” a series of neon tubes conjoined in the familiar geometry of a highway interchange (also curiously evoking a cross).

Wastijn told me that first and foremost, the piece was a “tribute to the most beautiful Belgian sculpture,” the illuminated highways that some believe can be seen from space. The cross form was not accidental, he said, as the piece was a sort of “icon, almost religious… of a nearly dead phantasm, that of freedom through speed and the solitude of your ideal car in a landscape.” Have you ever seen, he asked, an ad for a car amidst a traffic jam? The answer is no, of course, and I’ve often wondered if there’s a secret compact by the car companies not to show traffic.

He mentioned the new “replacement” condition, where the “car belongs in the feeling of a traffic jam… a sort of mobile comfortable place, with a stereo better than at home, a GPS — although you often exactly know where you are and it steals your feeling of adventure.” With the first mobile phones, he noted, the king was one who could be reached anytime, anywhere; now the power may be held by those who have the luxury of not being contacted.

I received Wastijn’s images a few days before I saw the images (shown below) of the work by Yutaka Sone, depicting the freeways of Los Angeles (where Wastijn has been also doing work) in a post by my pal Phil Patton. The monumental, classicist vibe put me in mind of a passage by Reyner Banham in his canonical text Los Angeles: “Whether you regard them as crowns of thorns or chaplets of laurels, the freeways are what the tutelary deity of the City of Angels should wear upon her head instead of the mural crows sported by the goddesses of old.”

Either way, rendered in cool marble or cool neon, it’s a lot more edifying appreciating these interchanges as art than trying to navigate them on a Friday at 5:00 o’clock…

Wired Magazine 16.08

I’m up in Boston (hence the slow posting), home of that legendary creature, conductorus bostoniana — i.e., the “Boston driver” — a topic I’ll return to in another post. But just to note there’s a great write-up in the latest issue of Wired, by Josh McHugh (article here or after the jump). In it is discussed briefly a topic I’ll also want to return to in a later post: comparing internet traffic to vehicular traffic.

Posted on Tuesday, July 22nd, 2008 at 5:45 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Control Group to the North

Dan Gardner sent an interesting article along about the state of traffic safety in Canada. According to statistics, road fatalities in Canada dropped by roughly half from 1979 to to 2004: 5,933 to 2,875.

Had the U.S. been able to achieve a similar reduction in a similar time period, we would have seen the 51,091 fatalities in 1980 drop to roughly 25,500 in 2004. Instead, there were 42,836 people killed in 2004.

It’s very difficult to compare countries directly, and, no, I’ve not analyzed the comparative changes in population, vehicles, vehicle miles traveled (VMT), registered drivers, composition of vehicle fleet, etc. etc. According to a number of indices, though, (per million vehicles, per million population, even fatalities per VMT), Canada comes across as the safer place to drive.

Gardner joked that we Americans should pay more attention to that “control group to the north,” and it made me wonder: How different are the U.S. and Canada? Was the U.S. swamped with newcomers during the time, and did Canada see an exodus? (that wouldn’t really explain the VMT disparity in any case) In my (brief) times on Canadian roads, they haven’t seem that different from U.S. roads, and I would imagine Canadians might be exposed to as much, if not more, high-speed rural driving (the most dangerous sort there is).

I’m not sure what the ‘x’ factor is here, if there is one — and there could be many. Or could it simply be that Canadians are safer and more polite on the roads? Any ideas?

[update: Commenter Ken raises a good point: Seat-belt-use rates. In Canada they clocked in, in 2004-5, at 90.5% (it presumably may have risen a bit since); in the U.S. the average in 2007 was 82%. Lloyd’s points are well-taken as well; given the severity of Canadian winters, and given that in the U.S. the lowest fatality rates are seen in February, it’s not hard to imagine more Canadians hunkered down for longer, and just driving more cautiously when they do emerge.]

Posted on Friday, July 18th, 2008 at 3:06 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Connubial Commuting

Rather obscured in all four-buck-gas-price-let’s-drill-the-Grand-Canyon fervor is the simple, radical, forgotten fuel-saving technology that promises up to 75% improvements in fuel efficiency: Carpooling.

This good story in the Boston Globe breaks it down. My favorite passage:

“Being in a van pool, jokes the cheerful court stenographer with spiky red hair, is like marriage: “There are days you just have to pretend you don’t hear someone.” In both social contracts, participants initially fear the loss of independence and autonomy, but once they start reaping the benefits, many will quickly forget that they ever lived another way.”

Posted on Friday, July 18th, 2008 at 6:12 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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A New Cure for Congestion?

How did I miss this gem from The Onion?

Tired Of Traffic? A New DOT Report Urges Drivers: ‘Honk’

Posted on Thursday, July 17th, 2008 at 12:50 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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What’s the Matter with North Dakota?

Buried in this story about a lawsuit in Fargo that apparently led to reduced traffic fines is this rather startling fact:

“A comparison of fines shows speeding up to 5 mph over the limit in Fargo costs $75 compared with a $5 state fine. Failure to have a vehicle under control brings a $100 fee in Fargo compared with a state fee of $30, court documents say.”

A $5 fine? What good is enforcement if a.) It can’t pay for itself and b.) Fines are so low as to be laughable — the roadway equivalent of a “foul language” box in the office or some such.

The brave Norma Rae figure in this drama, by the way, who liberated Fargo-ites from the cruel onslaught of onerous traffic fines under which they’d suffered, has been “ticketed twice for speeding, twice for not wearing a seat belt, and once for failing to have her vehicle under control, court documents said.”

Posted on Thursday, July 17th, 2008 at 12:33 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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How the Apes Crossed the Road

All the discussion about giving Great Apes new rights in Spain reminded me of an interesting “traffic study” of sorts that had been done involving chimpanzees — with whom we share 98% of our DNA — in Guinea.

In a fascinating report, a group of researchers set out to learn how a recently enlarged road, running through the territory of a 12-strong chimp colony, might have changed their behavior. After all, roads have been known to have had quite negative effects on wildlife. Interestingly, though, the chimps seemed to “draw on a phylogenetically-old principle of protective socio-spatial organization to produce flexible, adaptive and cooperative responses to risk.” In other words, they learned to cross the road.

Posted on Wednesday, July 16th, 2008 at 2:05 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic Tom Vanderbilt

How We Drive is the companion blog to Tom Vanderbilt’s New York Times bestselling book, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us), published by Alfred A. Knopf in the U.S. and Canada, Penguin in the U.K, and in languages other than English by a number of other fine publishers worldwide.

Please send tips, news, research papers, links, photos (bad road signs, outrageous bumper stickers, spectacularly awful acts of driving or parking or anything traffic-related), or ideas for my Transport column to me at:

For publicity inquiries, please contact Kate Runde at Vintage:

For editorial inquiries, please contact Zoe Pagnamenta at The Zoe Pagnamenta Agency:

For speaking engagement inquiries, please contact
Kim Thornton at the Random House Speakers Bureau:

Order Traffic from:

Amazon | B&N | Borders
Random House | Powell’s

U.S. Paperback UK Paperback
Traffic UK
Drive-on-the-left types can order the book from

For UK publicity enquiries please contact Rosie Glaisher at Penguin.

Upcoming Talks

April 9, 2008.
California Office of Traffic Safety Summit
San Francisco, CA.

May 19, 2009
University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies
Bloomington, MN

June 23, 2009
Driving Assessment 2009
Big Sky, Montana

June 26, 2009
PRI World Congress
Rotterdam, The Netherlands

June 27, 2009
Day of Architecture
Utrecht, The Netherlands

July 13, 2009
Association of Transportation Safety Information Professionals (ATSIP)
Phoenix, AZ.

August 12-14
Texas Department of Transportation “Save a Life Summit”
San Antonio, Texas

September 2, 2009
Governors Highway Safety Association Annual Meeting
Savannah, Georgia

September 11, 2009
Oregon Transportation Summit
Portland, Oregon

October 8
Honda R&D Americas
Raymond, Ohio

October 10-11
INFORMS Roundtable
San Diego, CA

October 21, 2009
California State University-San Bernardino, Leonard Transportation Center
San Bernardino, CA

November 5
Southern New England Planning Association Planning Conference
Uncasville, Connecticut

January 6
Texas Transportation Forum
Austin, TX

January 19
Yale University
(with Donald Shoup; details to come)

Monday, February 22
Yale University School of Architecture
Eero Saarinen Lecture

Friday, March 19
University of Delaware
Delaware Center for Transportation

April 5-7
University of Utah
Salt Lake City
McMurrin Lectureship

April 19
International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association (Organization Management Workshop)
Austin, Texas

Monday, April 26
Edmonton Traffic Safety Conference
Edmonton, Canada

Monday, June 7
Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals
Niagara Falls, Ontario

Wednesday, July 6
Fondo de Prevención Vial
Bogotá, Colombia

Tuesday, August 31
Royal Automobile Club
Perth, Australia

Wednesday, September 1
Australasian Road Safety Conference
Canberra, Australia

Wednesday, September 22

Wisconsin Department of Transportation’s
Traffic Incident Management Enhancement Program
Statewide Conference
Wisconsin Dells, WI

Wednesday, October 20
Rutgers University
Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation
Piscataway, NJ

Tuesday, March 8, 2011
Ontario Injury Prevention Resource Centre
Injury Prevention Forum

Monday, May 2
Idaho Public Driver Education Conference
Boise, Idaho

Tuesday, June 2, 2011
California Association of Cities
Costa Mesa, California

Sunday, August 21, 2011
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Attitudes: Iniciativa Social de Audi
Madrid, Spain

April 16, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Gardens Theatre, QUT
Brisbane, Australia

April 17, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Centennial Plaza, Sydney
Sydney, Australia

April 19, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Melbourne Town Hall
Melbourne, Australia

January 30, 2013
University of Minnesota City Engineers Association Meeting
Minneapolis, MN

January 31, 2013
Metropolis and Mobile Life
School of Architecture, University of Toronto

February 22, 2013
ISL Engineering
Edmonton, Canada

March 1, 2013
Australian Road Summit
Melbourne, Australia

May 8, 2013
New York State Association of
Transportation Engineers
Rochester, NY

August 18, 2013 “Ingenuity” Conference
San Francisco, CA

September 26, 2013
TransComm 2013
(Meeting of American Association
of State Highway and Transportation
Officials’ Subcommittee on Transportation
Grand Rapids MI



July 2008

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