Archive for October, 2008

Joe the Dumber

Traffic-related presidential campaign hijinx don’t get any better than Joe McCain’s much-celebrated call to 911 to register the following: “Well, it’s not an emergency, but do you know why on one side at the damn drawbridge of 95 traffic is stopped for 15 minutes and yet traffic’s coming the other way?”

Well, at least it wasn’t a bridge to nowhere. I couldn’t help noticing, via the always penetrating Jonathan Raban in the London Review of Books, this chestnut: “[Palin] redecorated the mayor’s office at a reported cost of $50,000 salvaged from the highways budget.” That included red-flock wallpaper.

Posted on Saturday, October 25th, 2008 at 3:15 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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“Ford Lanes”

Some interesting numbers out of an HOT on Highway 167 in Washington state.

People seemed willing to pay $1 to lower their commute by 10 minutes in heavy congestion.

The highest possible tolls is $9, and only a dozen paid that in heavy-traffic July.

HOT’s have been famously tagged “Lexus Lanes,” but some reports have been shown them being used by a broad variety of users across income, etc., lines. The most common vehicle found in these lanes were not Lexuses (Lexi?) but Fords (7,500 of ’em). I wonder what percentage were pickup trucks, and I’m further interested in the gender breakdown of lane users.

Posted on Friday, October 24th, 2008 at 8:45 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Gentle Congestion

I talked to Mitchell Joachim in the new issue of Wired. As befitting someone who worked on the “City Car” at MIT, some of the talk turned to wheels, which like everything else in Joachim’s vision would look radically different down the road:

“His various cars would be less machine than Facebook on wheels. Instead of rpm gauges, there’d be social networking software telling drivers where their friends are and how to get there. Made from neoprene and other soft materials, cars would no longer suffer traffic-fouling fender benders, merely what he calls “gentle congestion”–picture a flock of urban sheep grazing against one other. Like Zipcar vehicles, the cars would be shared. They would “read” potholes and send warnings to nearby drivers and city repair crews. Urban parking would be eased by intelligent real-time supply and demand management, with people bidding remotely for available spots. Of course, there’d also be more spaces to begin with, since his cars could be folded and stacked like shopping carts. The average New York City block could handle 880 of the vehicles, he says.”

There was a lot more interesting stuff I couldn’t squeeze in, like ConEd thinking about getting into the mobility business — “cars as batteries,” etc.

Posted on Friday, October 24th, 2008 at 8:27 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Waarom wij rijden zoals wij rijden (en wat dat over ons zegt)

That’s the subtitle of the book, just out in the Netherlands, published by the fine De Bezige Bij — the “busy bee.” For the other international editions check here.

Jans, a Dutch traffic engineer, got in touch to note the book had been mentioned in the newspaper De Pers a few days ago. He also noted the article contained news that a recent “morning peak hour was the tenth worst peak hour ever, measured in total length of traffic jams, with a total of 568 kilometers (over 350 miles).”

I’m going to have start assembling a league table of traffic jam standings…

Posted on Friday, October 24th, 2008 at 8:16 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Gas Price/Traffic Congestion Nexus

Traffic data company Inrix has a new report out exploring the relationship between fuel prices and congestion. Not surprisingly, they found that “increases in gas prices in the first half of 2008 significantly impacted consumer behavior, resulting in strong correlations with reduced traffic congestion on a nationwide basis.”

Perhaps a bit more unexpected, however, is that this relationship was much stronger in certain metro areas, and seemed to barely affect others. And so places like Las Vegas and Orlando had a relatively big correlation between TTI (“travel time index”) and fuel price, while others, like NYC, barely had any. INRIX speculates this may have to do with the fact that more discretionary driving is typically done in those sorts of places (e.g., people on vacation), and that that would be the first thing to go, and further notes that “he largest decrease in congestion is at those times that are most impacted by vacation driving, specifically Friday PM, not Monday AM.”

One wonders what other factors might be lurking in there; e.g., the subprime crisis seemed to particularly hit areas that were particularly dependent on long car commutes; as Business Week has noted, “the subprime crisis was most pronounced in places where poorer people could afford to buy—largely in the distant suburbs where land was cheap and builders were active”; I imagine that was going on more in Las Vegas and Orlando than NYC.

Posted on Thursday, October 23rd, 2008 at 9:40 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The World’s Most Bizarre Traffic Safety Idea

China Daily reports on how primary school students in the county of Guizhou are required to “salute” the drivers of passing cars (I don’t think they’re talking about the one-fingered variety).

Story here or after the jump…


Posted on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008 at 3:48 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Trouble with Off-Peak Buses

Via Berkeley’s Center for Future Urban Transport is a new study that I imagine will be generating some discussion. The work, by Mikhail Chester and Arpad Horvath, is meant to: “develop comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantify the energy inputs and emissions from autos, buses, heavy rail, light rail and air transportation in the U.S. associated with the entire life cycle (design, raw materials extraction, manufacturing, construction, operation, maintenance, end-of-life) of the vehicles, infrastructures, and fuels involved in these systems. Energy inputs are quantified as well as greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant outputs. Inventory results are normalized to effects per vehicle-lifetime, VMT, and PMT.”

Among the more eye-raising findings noted:

• Roadway construction particulate matter emissions are as large as tail-pipe emissions for the automobile per passenger-mile-traveled.

• Urban buses with peak-hour occupancies have the best energy and greenhouse gas performance, followed by rail and then air systems, and trailed by automobiles. But off-peak bus travel is the worst performer.

• Air travel is environmentally competitive with rail travel and can outperform rail modes when the aircraft is about 80 percent utilized.

• The use of ground support equipment at airports contributes roughly one-third of the total carbon monoxide lifecycle emissions for aircraft.

• While rail systems are the best energy and greenhouse gas performers, they exhibit the largest shares from infrastructure effects in the lifecycle. This results from environmentally much larger infrastructure requirements per passenger-mile served.

Posted on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008 at 3:23 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Ten Things You Should Know About Montreal Traffic

Based on my absolutely unscientific observations:

1.) The drivers are nuts. At least more so than those I’ve seen in Vancouver or Toronto. You get the feeling, walking, that they haven’t quite made up their mind whether to stop, particularly as make turn into crosswalks (I was told, by the way, that this is “one of two cities in North America where right turn on red is prohibited”; hmm, is this true?). I don’t see much enforcement (which makes me wonder, as an aside, whether corruption levels have been tracked to be higher here than in other provinces). In bad travel articles and the like you see things about the “more relaxed pace of life” in Montreal; I’m not sure drivers got the memo on this one.

2.) Pedestrians are too docile. This could be a result of having been cowed by point #1, of course. But I feel alone sometimes in my jaywalking. C’mon people, take back the streets! Look at cars, not signals! When January comes around, do you really want to be waiting on that corner?

3.) Every other car seems to be a Mazda.

4.) At many intersections there is absolutely NO clearance phase. No 1.7 seconds or so of grace. One light turns red, the other instantly turns green. Any comparative data on intersection crashes, I wonder?

5.) Most signs are in French (or simply graphic), except for the quasi-secessionist stop signs of Westmount.

6.) There are some really good separated bike lanes. But I’ve only seen them in certain areas. I don’t know how well linked up they all are. But I’m on foot in any case.

7.) The Turcot Yards area has to be one of the most spectacularly dystopic interchange conurbations I’ve ever seen — anyone looking to film J.G. Ballard’s Concrete Island, look no further.

8.) I was a bit surprised by the number of suburban-style gas stations and mini-marts in town. The city is not as dense in places as I thought it might be.

9.) The “walk man” here has strangely long legs and a quite wide, jaunty stride.

10.) There’s a lot of it (traffic, that is).

Posted on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008 at 1:40 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Changing Entrenched Behaviors

I was intrigued by this slide from a talk by Michael O’Hare, at the UC-Berkeley’s School of Public Policy. I imagine there would have been few people in 1968 predicting that by 2008 smoking in public places would largely be a thing of the past.

Posted on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008 at 9:02 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Obsessive Traffic Photo Studies

Two recent entries have crossed my desk. One, from Martin Parr, who I interviewed some years back. Parr, who makes the banal seem lurid, and vice versa, turns his lens now on the humble parking space. Pictured at right is Mexico City, home of course to the famous “viene viene” boys, who hang around street corners and wave drivers into spots that they’ve secured with chairs, as pictured.

The description for Parking Spaces reads so:

“Between 2002 and 2007, Martin Parr photographed ‘the last parking space’ available in 41 countries – somewhere you could have parked your car, had you been there at the time. Using a compact camera, and driven by wanting to express “the individual frustration of finding somewhere to park, but on a global level”, this is the latest body of work in Martin’s methodical personal address to the issues of globalisation – the desire for a precious parking space being a banal unifier of the middle classes the world over.”

Meanwhile, the always interesting Mikael Colville-Andersen over at Copenhagenize has contributed Stripey Streetness, which, as the description notes:

“A splendid photo series about the zebra crossing as an instantly recognisable symbol in the urban landscape. 130 photographs from 10 countries celebrating that striped zone created in order to keep people out of harm’s way by providing safe passage across city streets. Painted bridges that guide the bustling masses of pedestrians through a city. The zebra crossing is not a destination it itself but it is an important tool in getting yourself from A to B. It funnels all types of people together into one space, for a few brief minutes of togetherness. We are strangers but while waiting for the light to change and for those dozen or so steps through the zone we are in a flock. This photo series shows city life and city people framed within the zebra crossing. People coming and going and waiting. All of them telling us stories with their body language. Wide strides or short steps. Hunched shoulders or head held high. The zebra crossing becomes a stage on which people around the world are brought together.”

Not sure if he’s got Shibuya in there…

Posted on Tuesday, October 21st, 2008 at 5:06 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Strange History of Sight Lines

“Already in 1285 central government intervention decreed in the Statute of Winchester that a passage should be cleared for two hundred feet on each side of the road ‘so that their neither be dyke nor bush whereby a man may lurk to do hurt’ — a provision of sight-lines on a scale even dwarfing that of modern motorways.”

That’s from Sylvia Crowe’s The Landscape of Roads, 1960.

Posted on Tuesday, October 21st, 2008 at 2:59 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Is There a Guiness Book Entry for Traffic Jams?

Bloomberg notes a colossal jam in Moscow:

Traffic jams paralyzed practically all the major arteries of the capital on Tuesday morning,” state broadcaster Vesti-24 reported. “The overall length of traffic jams in the capital at 9:45 a.m. exceeds 500 kilometers.”

It added:

“Sao Paulo, which is Brazil’s and Latin America’s largest city, with a notorious traffic problem, posted a record on May 9 when 266 kilometers of traffic was at a standstill, according to the state’s traffic department. That’s about half the figure in Moscow this morning.

Posted on Tuesday, October 21st, 2008 at 2:37 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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“Stupidity Blamed for Road Deaths”

Apparently, they don’t mince words in Australia. Story here.

Posted on Tuesday, October 21st, 2008 at 2:12 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Getting It Wrong in Montogomery County

As was recently reported in the Washington Post, Montgomery County, Md., is planning an overhaul of its “road code,” the sort of thing that seems like a bureaucratic footnote but then goes on to have major implications in the built environment.

Among the major issues, the newspaper reported:

The panel recommended that roads in urban areas be designed for speed limits of 30 to 40 mph, saying anything slower would be unrealistic and difficult for police to enforce. The panel also said trees should be planted farther from curbs on roads with 40 mph speed limits because of the danger they pose to motorists who hit them.

What strikes me in discussions like these is the weird disconnect between design and driver behavior. One of the reasons it can so often be difficult to enforce lower speed limits is that these limits are posted on roads that are intensely over-engineered. The supposed “fix,” as suggested above, is to assume that drivers are going to drive at a certain speed, and so to then rearrange the entire landscape — removing trees, etc. — to allow them to do so “safely.”

Of course, on the road “designed” for speed limits of 30 to 40 mph, they will inevitably drive faster. But then, of course, if someone crashes and kills a pedestrian or another driver, it’s an “accident,” it’s down to driver behavior; if they smash into a tree, it’s deemed poor traffic safety engineering. As the work of Eric Dumbaugh has found, looking at streets like the one above, at Stetson University in Florida, often the worst safety performance comes on the roads that are deemed “safe” by traffic engineers, while the best can come on tree-lined streets like the one above (which had no crashes and speeds below 30 mph during the five years he looked at it).

We consistently get urban speeds wrong in the U.S. In Germany, the land where speed is supposedly worshipped, the speed-limit free sections of the autobahn are contrasted by a mandatory, heavily enforced 30 KPH (that’s 18 mph, folks) limit in residential areas.

Another classic specter the article invokes is emergency response times. Any time a group seeks to lower speeds on a road, there are dark projections made of people being killed in fires because firefighters will be held up on traffic calmed streets. Well, for one, have you ever seen these vehicles on the way to an incident? They often don’t actually drive that much faster than anyone else — particularly since cars frequently don’t get out of the way in time — but I wonder if the lights and sirens and the panic they induce may make us overestimate their sense of urgency. In any case, studies have suggested that emergency-response teams are as likely to be help up by random traffic delays and the like as anything else.

But the larger issue is risk. As Reason magazine has pointed out, the risk of dying in a fire in the U.S. is roughly the same as drowning: In one year, 1 in 88,000, and, over a lifetime, 1 in 1100. The risk of dying in a car crash, according to the article, is 1 out of 6500 in a year. The risk of being killed while being a pedestrian? “A one-year risk of one in 48,500 and a lifetime risk of one in 625.”

Designing roads to meet some supposed emergency response criteria, for that dramatic last-second rescue, actually helps raise the risk of dying in a much more common way: In traffic.

Posted on Tuesday, October 21st, 2008 at 8:41 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Please Touch That Dial

I have a piece in the new issue of I.D. that considers what influence the visual displays of speedometers might have on our driving behavior. Story is here or after the jump…


Posted on Saturday, October 18th, 2008 at 2:12 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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While We’re Talking About Parking…

Greenwich Village, NYC, has just doubled its hourly meter rates for street parking in a trial, reports the NYT.

I’m not sure if they’re going for that Shoupian “85% occupancy” solution, but judging by some of the quotes, the price might need to get higher (or time limits need to be enforced).

“On Wednesday, shortly before noon, Sal Rincione sent one of his employees to feed the meter where his 2008 Acura sedan was parked on Seventh Avenue South.

Mr. Rincione, who runs Five Guys Burgers and Fries on the corner of Bleecker and Barrow Streets, lives in West New York, N.J. The increase, Mr. Rincione said, is not likely to change his parking habits.

“Even at $2 an hour, it’s still cheaper than putting your car in a garage,” he said.”

Posted on Saturday, October 18th, 2008 at 1:59 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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It All Comes Down to a Parking Space

Like the narrator of Calvin Trillin’s novella, Tepper Isn’t Going Out, as a New Yorker with a car, I have an unseemly obsession with parking. I have encoded into long-term memory the local geography of available spaces, and I can identify a false space (e.g., a parking hydrant) from far off, like a fisherman can sense oncoming weather. My refrigerator bears not family photos but the DOT’s calendar of street-cleaning holidays (Sukkot — Yes!) I’ve spent late nights cruising around looking what for I sometimes think must be the last available space, and pondered the unthinkable: What would happen if, one night, there simply were no spaces, if the invisible hand of the parking market clenched up into a closed fist? It’s this last prospect that, more than anything, determines my own (limited) use of the car in the city. I only drive someplace when I know I can reasonably expect to find parking, and when there is a reasonable chance of finding a “good” space when I return.

This point is underscored in a fascinating new study, “Guaranteed Parking — Guaranteed Driving,” by Rachel Weinberger, Mark Seaman Carolyn Johnson, and John Kaehny (via the indispensable Streetsblog).

The study looks at two NYC neighborhoods Park Slope and Jackson Heights and finds, strikingly, that despite a number of other demographic factors (e.g., income, car ownership, number of total commuters, government employees, etc.) that would seem to tip Park Slope as the bigger source of drivers commuting into Manhattan, it’s actually Jackson Heights that comes out on top in terms of car commuting — by 28%.

What explained the difference? “Surveying the neighborhoods brought us to a powerful explanation,” the authors write. “Jackson Heights has more than twice as much off-street residential parking per residence, it has more than 2.5 times as much off-street parking per car-owning household and over six times as much ‘on-site’ off-street parking, i.e., in driveways or on-site garages.”

In essence, having that guaranteed spot upon returning makes Jackson Heights residents more likely to get behind the wheel. This report doesn’t cover actual traffic patterns within Jackson Heights, but I would imagine the same parking formula helps explain why traffic congestion always seems so abysmal in Jackson Heights; in Park Slope (or “No Park Slope” as we call it around here), the streets are rarely that crowded per se, but finding a parking space can often be arduous. So much so that I usually find another way to go to Park Slope.

In any case, the report shows how traffic, rather than the ‘natural’ phenomenon it is sometimes taken for (“trafficandweather,” exclaim the radio stations), is shaped by a series of discrete incentives, and of course by government policy; as Kaehny notes, what explains the parking discrepancy to begin with between the two neighborhoods is that “much more of Jackson Heights has been built since 1963, when the city zoning code introduced residential parking requirements…[which require] driving-inducing residential parking for between 40 and 150 percent of new dwelling units.”

Posted on Friday, October 17th, 2008 at 9:38 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Is M. Night Shyamalan Working for the DFT?

The U.K.’s “Think” campaign typically offers first-rate stuff (even when they borrow the concepts from others, as in the “gorillas” video), and this one’s no exception.

I can’t remember the last time I saw an ad in the U.S. talking about speed and pedestrian safety.

(via The Transportationist)

Posted on Thursday, October 16th, 2008 at 1:00 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Cogitive Dissonance

In Traffic I spend a fair amount of time talking about the “myth of multitasking,” and my basic riff on talking on a phone (doesn’t matter if it’s hands-free or not) and driving is that you’ll be doing one or the other — and perhaps both — less well. By how much depends on the driving and it depends on the conversation.

NPR took a novel approach to demonstrate the mechanics of distraction: Rather than looking at a driver, they asked a professional musician to play piano while being asked to do other things.

To wit:

“For over an hour, we tasked Frasch with playing a range of pieces, some he knew and some he had to sight-read. While he was playing, we asked him to multitask. Sometimes the additional work was simple. For instance, Frasch has no trouble talking about his childhood while playing a Bach minuet. But when the challenges took more brain power, it was tougher for Frasch to answer questions and play the piano at the same time.”

Is it just me or was he actually not even that smooth on this part?

It gets worse:

“So we took it up another notch. We gave Frasch a piece of music he’d never seen before, a fast-tempo number. While he was sight-reading, like a driver navigating an unfamiliar route through a big city, we asked him to do a math problem:

“What’s 73 minus 21?”

Frasch played on while he thought through the problem out loud. He hit a few wrong notes on the keyboard before coming up with the right answer: 52.

A multitasking driver might have hit something else. Just says the pianist, who was already working hard to follow the music, simply couldn’t handle something else that required real thinking.”

As one of the commenters notes, this guy is a professional, someone who’s practiced for countless hours. Imagine by contrast the “average” driver and the sheer range of novel events that can happen on the road.

(thanks to Peter Warnock)

Posted on Thursday, October 16th, 2008 at 9:05 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Markets in Everything (the Traffic Edition)

From the Chicago Tribune:

“In markets selling fake seat belts in neighboring Rawalpindi, stores have sold out. These belts are threadbare, and their buckling mechanisms do not appear to be strong enough to withstand a stomach after a heavy meal, let alone a 5-m.p.h. car crash.

“These belts aren’t really made for cars,” acknowledged entrepreneur Waqas Ali, 23, who sells fake seat belts and other car parts. “They’re of no use. We just put them in because of the police.”

Posted on Wednesday, October 15th, 2008 at 9:20 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic Tom Vanderbilt

How We Drive is the companion blog to Tom Vanderbilt’s New York Times bestselling book, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us), published by Alfred A. Knopf in the U.S. and Canada, Penguin in the U.K, and in languages other than English by a number of other fine publishers worldwide.

Please send tips, news, research papers, links, photos (bad road signs, outrageous bumper stickers, spectacularly awful acts of driving or parking or anything traffic-related), or ideas for my Transport column to me at:

For publicity inquiries, please contact Kate Runde at Vintage:

For editorial inquiries, please contact Zoe Pagnamenta at The Zoe Pagnamenta Agency:

For speaking engagement inquiries, please contact
Kim Thornton at the Random House Speakers Bureau:

Order Traffic from:

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Random House | Powell’s

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Traffic UK
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For UK publicity enquiries please contact Rosie Glaisher at Penguin.

Upcoming Talks

April 9, 2008.
California Office of Traffic Safety Summit
San Francisco, CA.

May 19, 2009
University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies
Bloomington, MN

June 23, 2009
Driving Assessment 2009
Big Sky, Montana

June 26, 2009
PRI World Congress
Rotterdam, The Netherlands

June 27, 2009
Day of Architecture
Utrecht, The Netherlands

July 13, 2009
Association of Transportation Safety Information Professionals (ATSIP)
Phoenix, AZ.

August 12-14
Texas Department of Transportation “Save a Life Summit”
San Antonio, Texas

September 2, 2009
Governors Highway Safety Association Annual Meeting
Savannah, Georgia

September 11, 2009
Oregon Transportation Summit
Portland, Oregon

October 8
Honda R&D Americas
Raymond, Ohio

October 10-11
INFORMS Roundtable
San Diego, CA

October 21, 2009
California State University-San Bernardino, Leonard Transportation Center
San Bernardino, CA

November 5
Southern New England Planning Association Planning Conference
Uncasville, Connecticut

January 6
Texas Transportation Forum
Austin, TX

January 19
Yale University
(with Donald Shoup; details to come)

Monday, February 22
Yale University School of Architecture
Eero Saarinen Lecture

Friday, March 19
University of Delaware
Delaware Center for Transportation

April 5-7
University of Utah
Salt Lake City
McMurrin Lectureship

April 19
International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association (Organization Management Workshop)
Austin, Texas

Monday, April 26
Edmonton Traffic Safety Conference
Edmonton, Canada

Monday, June 7
Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals
Niagara Falls, Ontario

Wednesday, July 6
Fondo de Prevención Vial
Bogotá, Colombia

Tuesday, August 31
Royal Automobile Club
Perth, Australia

Wednesday, September 1
Australasian Road Safety Conference
Canberra, Australia

Wednesday, September 22

Wisconsin Department of Transportation’s
Traffic Incident Management Enhancement Program
Statewide Conference
Wisconsin Dells, WI

Wednesday, October 20
Rutgers University
Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation
Piscataway, NJ

Tuesday, March 8, 2011
Ontario Injury Prevention Resource Centre
Injury Prevention Forum

Monday, May 2
Idaho Public Driver Education Conference
Boise, Idaho

Tuesday, June 2, 2011
California Association of Cities
Costa Mesa, California

Sunday, August 21, 2011
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Attitudes: Iniciativa Social de Audi
Madrid, Spain

April 16, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Gardens Theatre, QUT
Brisbane, Australia

April 17, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Centennial Plaza, Sydney
Sydney, Australia

April 19, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Melbourne Town Hall
Melbourne, Australia

January 30, 2013
University of Minnesota City Engineers Association Meeting
Minneapolis, MN

January 31, 2013
Metropolis and Mobile Life
School of Architecture, University of Toronto

February 22, 2013
ISL Engineering
Edmonton, Canada

March 1, 2013
Australian Road Summit
Melbourne, Australia

May 8, 2013
New York State Association of
Transportation Engineers
Rochester, NY

August 18, 2013 “Ingenuity” Conference
San Francisco, CA

September 26, 2013
TransComm 2013
(Meeting of American Association
of State Highway and Transportation
Officials’ Subcommittee on Transportation
Grand Rapids MI



October 2008

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