Archive for November, 2009

Shopping Timing

In the book I discuss special “Sabbath timing” patterns for traffic signals in Los Angeles.

From the Washington Business Journal comes word of new patterns for a more secular holiday: Black Friday:

The Virginia Department of Transportation will alter traffic signals at 14 shopping centers in Northern Virginia to accommodate the increase in shoppers on Black Friday and during the holiday season.

Using traffic data from previous years, VDOT will implement time- and location-specific signal timing at 188 intersections.

The timing changes are intended to minimize backups near shopping centers and maximize traffic flow around them.

Posted on Wednesday, November 25th, 2009 at 6:20 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Lacking Clarity in Thailand

Richard Stampfle writes:

This is a true picture of a bus in Thailand used to deliver school children to functions. It is representative of many vehicles in Thailand, it is not an exception. I have hundreds more photos I could have used. While we may recognize that the driver cannot see you will find it strange to learn that most Thais find no problem with this picture. I have asked several what is wrong with the picture; one commented that it should be Liverpool not Manchester United on the Glass. One felt the colors were somewhat gaudy but that is a matter of taste. No one commented on the safety issue. When I showed a similar picture at a meeting of the Thailand Global Road Safety Partnership the only suggestion was that I should do some research on the subject and gather sufficient statistics to get the attention of law makers — if indeed this was actually a problem. (There seemed to be some doubt.)

Posted on Wednesday, November 25th, 2009 at 7:30 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Effects of Beauty on Speed

I was intrigued by this line from a new paper by John N. Ivan, Norman W. Garrick, and Gilbert Hanson titled “Designing Roads That Guide Drivers to Choose Safer Speeds”:

The aesthetics or “beauty” of a road environment has also been investigated in relation to traffic safety. Drottenborg (1999) studied the impact of speed on streets that appear as “beautiful” due to the blossoming of cherry trees along the streets in Lund during springtime, and similar streets that lack such beautification. She found that the free-flow mean speed decreased by about 5 percent and the number of vehicles traveling at high speeds between 50-60 km/h decreased by about 12 percent during the cherry blossom period.

One imagines a whole new sub-field of traffic engineering, with myriad questions: Do certain buildings or even architectural styles affect driver behavior? Can beautiful people literally “stop traffic”? Road aesthetics in general is a rather lost art; there’s a whole interesting strand of research from the optimistic 1950s, particularly from the U.K., looking into things like which sorts of road-side plants read most legibly at design speeds.

Of course, in so much of contemporary America, what James Howard Kunstler lovingly calls our “National Automobile Slum,” there’s not much present that would make anyone slow down (just the opposite really); indeed, the only seeming role of aesthetics in these environments is to transmit basic information (e.g., branding messages) at highway speed. When one actually gets out of the car in something like a big-box parking lot the effect is rather soul-crushing.

The aforementioned paper (which looked at a variety of locations in Connecticut), by the way, found that, perhaps not surprisingly, “drivers slow down where the road feels “hemmed- in” or there is noticeable street activity, and they speed up where the road feels “wide open” or street activity is less noticeable. This finding is not surprising, but these relationships are quite strong in the observed data, and it is a useful result to isolate this short list of factors that are significantly correlated with actual vehicle running speeds.”

And speaking of aesthetics, roads, and Connecticut, the Merritt Parkway is in trouble. The Depression-era Merritt Parkway had made the World Monuments Fund list of endangered global treasures, joining Machu Picchu, among others.

Built in the 1930s, the Parkway was intended for cars going a leisurely 35 mph, not today’s high speeds. More than simply a road to get drivers from one place to another, it provides a uniquely relaxing experience, said Jill Smyth, executive director of the Merritt Parkway Conservancy, the nonprofit that nominated the road for a slot on the World Monuments Fund list. She touted its gently rolling topography, quintessentially New England landscape and historic stone bridges…

…Newman said he and other Merritt fans are currently at “loggerheads” with ConnDOT over a plan that is underway near Trumbull, Conn., which will restore 12 bridges, but also involves the removal of many trees.

The Merritt is a case where the presence of trees and aesthetics doesn’t seem to affect speed choice for many drivers — I’m always amazed at how fast people pass me. I’d hate to see the Parkway turned into some sterile version of I-95 because of the actions of a few people driving, as the police summons puts it, “too fast for conditions.”

Posted on Monday, November 23rd, 2009 at 10:29 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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ESC and Driver Adaptation

NHTSA has predicted that electronic stability control “would save 5,300 to 9,600 lives and prevent 156,000 to 238,000 injuries in all types of crashes annually once all light vehicles on the road are equipped with ESC.”

This article brings up a few of the reasons why that estimate — as with previous technological interventions — might be high (even if there is still a net safety gain). One of the operative questions is how aware people are of the presence of ESC, and whether they can actually feel its effects, and what new problems owing to unintended consequences might arise.

But not everyone sees stability control as a cure-all that will prevent all road crashes.

Independent stability control development specialist Graeme Gambold says that while he supports the rolling out of the system, there are drawbacks. One is the dumbing down of drivers who increasingly are relying on technology to get them out of fixes.

“With the new regulation calling for every car to be equipped with [stability control], I worry that skill deprivation is not an issue in the minds of governments,” Gambold says. “Yet this is the great killer on our roads. You’ve still got to be smart and still need a high level of skill to drive a motor car but authorities seem to think that there is a technological fix for the road toll.”

Gambold says stability control is only as good as a vehicle’s grip on the road. “It’s not as effective on more slippery surfaces such as ice, snow and on gravel,” he says. “Any number of environmental factors – crowned roads, potholes and broken road edges – can reduce its effectiveness.”

Another shortfall of stability control systems is that they will only try to control the car in the direction of your steering command.

“Turning the wheel into the slide can tell the system its task has finished and it may cease its assistance,” Gambold says.

Posted on Monday, November 23rd, 2009 at 9:17 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Road Tautology

(thanks Dan Pink)

Posted on Thursday, November 19th, 2009 at 10:33 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Laboratory on Wheels

My latest Slate column is up — a survey of the various psychology experiments that have been conducted on subway systems (particularly NYC’s) throughout the years.

Here’s a fragment:

Although subway studies had their heyday in the ’70s, they’re as old as public transit itself. The seminal urban sociologist Georg Simmel, in a famous passage from his 1912 volume Melanges de Philosophie Relativiste, was struck by the new spatial and sensorial regimen that transit provided. “Before the appearance of omnibuses, railroads, and street cars in the nineteenth century, men were not in a situation where for periods of minutes or hours they could or must look at each other without talking to one another.”

By 1971, Erving Goffman, in his book Relations in Public, was noting that a ritual of what he called “civil inattention” had taken hold on the subway as in other spheres of city life: We acknowledge another person’s presence, but not enough to make them “a target of special curiosity or design.” Or, as the authors of the essay “Subway Behavior,” (in the book People and Places: Sociology of the Familiar) put it, “subway behavior is regulated by certain societal rules and regulations that serve to protect personal rights and to sustain proper social distance between unacquainted people who are temporarily placed together in unfocused and focused interaction.”

What much subway psychology seeks to understand, however, is what holds these rules in place, and what happens when they are violated. In one of the most well-known studies, social psychologist Stanley Milgram had students spontaneously ask subway riders to give up their seats. As Thomas Blass recounts in The Man Who Shocked the World, this experiment arose from the seeming erosion of a subway norm. As Milgram’s mother-in-law had posed it to him: “Why don’t young people get up anymore in a bus or a subway train to give their seat to a gray-haired elderly woman?”

Posted on Tuesday, November 17th, 2009 at 9:11 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Where Is an Hour Not an Hour?

In the new fairy-land of New York City parking, where drivers, who tend to act like children to begin with, will be treated thusly and indulgently, in an act of colossal political cowardice (the car is, if nothing else, the great vehicle for political pandering — remember the “gas tax” holiday?).

Why a five-minute “grace period”? Why not ten minutes? Why enforce any law at all? Perhaps we should start demanding grace periods elsewhere in life (Mr. Taxi Driver, can you please drive me a few more blocks for free?) This is a classic case of Thomas Schelling’s “micromotives and macrobehavior,” where the no big deal of every driver taking the extra five minutes adds up to a great chain of inconvenience for the larger collective. That little grace period just added more cars to your block, circling for that (already undercharged) spot as the driver and traffic agent mull over the metaphysics of time.

Posted on Tuesday, November 17th, 2009 at 8:54 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic Safety Film of the Week

I couldn’t resist this image of an autonomous truck versus autonomous car showdown at the DARPA urban challenge race a few years back. One wonders what the algorithm is for determining propensity to back up — if the other guy is bigger than you?

Posted on Monday, November 16th, 2009 at 3:03 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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How’s Your Driving? Check Your Fingers

From an intriguing new study, titled (spoiler alert!) “Digit ratio (2D:4D) is associated with traffic violations for male frequent car drivers,” by Andreas Schwerdtfeger, Regina Heimsa, and Johannes Heera, published in the current Accident Analysis and Prevention, which examines so-called “digit ratio” in the context of driving.

What’s digit ratio, you ask?

The ratio of the finger length of the index finger (2D) relative to the ring finger (4D) (2D:4D; digit ratio) represents a putative marker of prenatal hormone exposure. Specifically, the length of the fourth finger (ring finger) seems to be affected more strongly by testosterone exposure during fetal development, whereas the length of the second (index) finger seems to be more closely related to prenatal estrogen exposure (Manning, 2002). There is evidence for the hypothesis that digit ratio is related to prenatal androgens such that higher testosterone relative to estrogen exposure is associated with a lower digit ratio (e.g., [Brown et al., 2002a], [Brown et al., 2002b], [Lutchmaya et al., 2004] and [Ökten et al., 2002]). This association seems to be influenced by the action of the Homebox (so-called Hox) genes, which control differentiation of digits and the urogenital system including testes and ovaries (e.g., Kondo et al., 1997 T. Kondo, J. Zakany, J.W. Innis and D. Duboule, Of fingers, toes and penises, Nature 390 (1997), p. 29. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (125)[Kondo et al., 1997] and [Pauls et al., 2006]). Indeed, males have been found to exhibit a lower digit ratio (i.e., relatively shorter index finger length than ring finger length) than females, reflecting a preponderance of ontogenetic testosterone over estrogen exposure. This difference has been found to emerge during fetal development, to be fixed by the 13th intrauterine week, and to remain stable thereafter ([Garn et al., 1975], [Manning, 2002] and [Trivers et al., 2006]). Thus, digit ratio represents a promising variable for examining organizational effects on the developing brain (e.g., Manning, 2002).

The study looked at a group of German drivers (who worked in sales, it seems, and drove a lot).

It was found that digit ratio was a robust predictor of penalty point entries, even after controlling for other relevant demographic and personality variables. A more masculinized digit ratio (relatively longer ring finger than index finger) was related to more traffic violations. Hence, this result extends previous findings in showing that organizational effects of prenatal androgens might increase not only financial risk-taking behavior (e.g., [Apicella et al., 2008], Coates et al., 2009 J.M. Coates, M. Gurnell and A. Rustichini, Second-to-fourth digit ratio predicts success among high-frequency financial traders, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106 (2009), pp. 623–628. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (6)[Coates et al., 2009] and [van Honk et al., 2004]), but also traffic-related risk behavior in later life, thus enhancing the probability of being prosecuted for traffic infringements. A closer look at the data suggests that a 0.01-point decrease in digit ratio is accompanied by about the same amount of increase in penalty points as is the increase in annual mileage of approximately 20,000 km. Moreover, digit ratio was a more robust predictor of penalty points than years licensed. Taken together, the findings suggest that gonadal hormone exposure in utero might increase traffic violations in later life, in addition to already established risk factors.

Could insurance companies start offering short-finger discounts?

Posted on Monday, November 16th, 2009 at 1:42 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Foot Notes

Ian Walker hates pedestrians.

Posted on Monday, November 16th, 2009 at 9:03 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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A Link Between the Murder Rate and Traffic Fatalities?

The always interesting and prolific Michael Sivak has a new paper, “Homicide Rate as a Predictor of Traffic Fatality Rate” — a pretty self-explanatory title — just out in the journal Traffic Injury Prevention.

Here’s the details:

Background: In the United States, traffic fatality rates per distance driven vary greatly from state to state, with the maximum rate being 2.9 times the minimum rate. This study was designed to examine factors associated with this variability.

Method: A multiple regression was performed on the 2006 state data. The dependent variable was the fatality rate per distance driven. There were 10 independent variables.

Results: The analysis identified seven statistically significant factors: homicide rate per capita (used in the analysis as a proxy for aggression), physicians per capita, safety-belt usage rate, proportion of male drivers, proportion of drivers over 64 years of age, income per capita, and deaths caused by alcohol related liver failures per capita (a proxy for the extent of intoxicated driving). These seven factors accounted for 71 percent of the variance in the traffic fatality rates. The strongest predictor of the traffic fatality rate was the homicide rate.

Conclusion: This finding suggests that social aspects of human interaction may play an important role in traffic safety.

In other words, states with a high murder rate are filled with aggressive people, many of whom take it out on the roads.

One issue that pops up in my head is the validity of statewide comparisons for both driving and murder rates, for the primary reason that the places where traffic fatalities occur are not necessarily the same places where murders occur (I’m imagining that the places with the higher per capita murder rates are urban counties, where driving exposure would be much less, but I may be very wrong on this). As William Lucy has argued, for example, in the state of Virginia there was a much higher risk of leaving home in sparsely populated suburbs — not because of would-be murderers but because of driving risk. Conversely, “cities that often are considered dangerous, like Richmond and Norfolk, ranked 19th and 30th in the number of traffic and homicide-by-stranger deaths among the 49 metropolitan-area jurisdictions included in the ranking.”

Or maybe some states just have a lot of murders and a lot of traffic fatalities, with no causal link between the two. Or perhaps all the police are all working on murder investigations, and too busy for traffic enforcement (though I have suggested the two should not be viewed is isolation).

I’m also not sure how deaths by liver disease as a proxy for alcohol-related driving deaths — there would seem to be any number of other things to consider (e.g., health-care quality in a given place, or density — Manhattan is filled with heavy drinkers but certainly must have fewer drunk drivers per capita).

Posted on Friday, November 13th, 2009 at 3:51 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Marine Traffic

Much fun to be had here. It looks pretty quiet around Somalia — I assume information there is embargoed.

(via BoingBoing)

Posted on Thursday, November 12th, 2009 at 3:16 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Bhutan’s Long and (really) Winding Roads

John Balz, of the Nudge blog, visited the Kingdom of Bhutan last year. In traffic terms, Bhutan is rather famous for being among the only — indeed perhaps the only — country without a traffic signal (it’s also the first non-smoking nation). Apparently a set was brought in at this busy junction, but eventually removed after public complaint.

He writes:

I haven’t done a ton of traveling, but I’d never experienced a place with such winding roads. I don’t think there was ever a stretch of road that was straight for more than a few bus lengths. One day I decided I wanted to graphically plot just how curvy Bhutan’s road were. I got out my watch and counted the number of turns per minute over one 8 hour drive. Traffic is pretty light so counting turns per minute was easier than counting turns per mile. I was with other people on this trip, and I basically asked them to leave me alone for the day and let me count.

Here is the graphic result of his voyage — a bell curve, if you will — which averaged about a turn every eight seconds of driving:

And here’s another way of looking at it:

I’m not sure if this makes Bhutan the world’s curviest country or not (and I’d be curious to see a graphic representation of the opposite experience, say, driving in rural North Dakota, where the Jeffersonian-derived-grid dominates the road network). Safetywise, Bhutan clearly needs some work, as this Japanese report noted: “The crash fatality rate in 2005 was 15.4 deaths per 10,000 vehicles per year, which is considered significantly high.” There does seem to be some effort to reduce curves in the mountains. Though options may be limited, in part due to ongoing tectonics, according to this source:

Would concrete roads instead of asphalt make things better?

The answer, in case you’re wondering, is no.

First of all, the department’s chief engineer explained, it would be very expensive for the government. Secondly, the terrain is not stable or, in geological speak, “matured” enough for us to build long stretches of concrete road.

“Unlike in the west where the geographical conditions are more stable our young mountains and terrains are in a continuous process of change and will not allow concrete highways,” Tshering Wangdi B. says. “A little defect in one section of the concrete highway will necessitate a redoing of the whole concrete highway. The government will incur very huge expenditure.”

Lastly, Balz notes that despite the stripes in the above picture, the road “was not a full two lanes.”

(images by John Balz)

Posted on Thursday, November 12th, 2009 at 11:12 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Crash Cab

You thought those TVs in the back of New York taxis were supremely annoying?

South Korea has legalized TVs in the front of cabs, for the drivers.

Posted on Monday, November 9th, 2009 at 7:25 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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The Geography of Road Danger

Mortality caused by Road Traffic Injury by Country

This color-coded traffic fatality chart is via ChartsBin. Iraq is one country that leaps out, and I’m not sure what part the road danger there is due to absence of government structure, bad infrastructure, or whether war/insurgency-related deaths (e.g., IEDs) are coded as traffic fatalities. Not to mention, from accounts I’ve seen, the idea that people often have to drive in a riskier fashion to simply avoid becoming the target of danger. Then there’s other, difficult to quantify ideas, such as that people living in a war environment might develop a more fatalistic view toward life.

Angola scores high too; I imagine it’s an offset of the country’s oil industry — more people with cars suddenly hitting the road.

This is of course per 100,000 population, which doesn’t account for the amount of exposure; given the average number of miles driven in the U.S. versus, say, Sierra Leone, really makes the statistics stand out. But there’s another overwhelming difference between the typical African country and the U.S., as CUNY’s Greg Chen points out:

One striking feature of road traffic crashes and injuries in Africa is its high involvement of, and impact on, the most vulnerable road users, the pedestrian and the passengers in public transportations, such as buses and minibuses. The literature review shows that pedestrian crashes account for more than 40 percent of crashes in most of Africa countries. For example, pedestrians accounted for 55% of road traffic deaths in Mozambique between 1993 and 2000 (Romao et al, 2003). Pedestrians account for 46% of road traffic deaths in Ghana between 1994 and 1998 (Afukaar et al, 2003). Pedestrian and passenger crashes represented 80% of all road traffic deaths in Kenya in 1990 (Odero et al, 2003).

And there’s another way to think about the statistics on a per 100,000 level; one might read the low per population rate in a country like Denmark not simply as the result of it being a small country, and hence fewer miles to traverse, but that people there simply don’t have to drive as much. Exposure, after all, is one ‘five Es” of traffic safety, along with education, enforcement, engineering, emergency response.

(thanks Peter)

Posted on Friday, November 6th, 2009 at 3:01 pm by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Cars in the (Long) Future

I came this across this passage in Jan Zalasiewicz’ book The Earth After Us, which takes a very long geologic view of the planet — 100 million years in the future (“we would almost certainly have died out long before then”). While our roads might be well preserved under layers of sediment, future archaeologists, it seems, may have to rely on written or pictoral records, or inference, to understand teh actual machines that traveled on them.

The wheeled transport machines that now run in such numbers along them may also fare rather poorly as regards long-term preservation. Were they made of ceramic, concrete or bone they would fossilize, perhaps even rather well. But iron and mild steel easily rust at the surface, and corrode and dissolve in the chemically reducing conditions of burial, while the compaction would crush the structure as effectively as the jaws of a breaker’s yard; rubber and plastic would carbonize, and glass devitrify. It would take some more than averagely good preservation to discern that there were even rotating wheels, and yet more to show that their rotation carried the whole contraption along the ground surface.

I suppose this means, contra Planet of the Apes, the Statue of Liberty won’t make it either.

Posted on Wednesday, November 4th, 2009 at 11:30 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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You Am Them, We are They

A Beckett-ian transcript of a self-reported drunk-driving call to 911:

Dispatch: You behind them?
Mary Strey: No, I am them.
Dispatch: You am them?
Mary Strey: Yes, I am them.
Dispatch: Okay, so you want to call and report you’re driving drunk?
Mary Strey: Yes.
Dispatch: Are you still driving right now? You want to stop driving before you get in an accident?
Mary Strey: Yes, I will stop.
Dispatch: You want to stop right now?
Mary Strey: Yes, I will stop right now.

While the driver shouldn’t have gotten behind the wheel to begin with, admittedly she is to be praised for staging her own intervention.

Via Roadguy.

Posted on Wednesday, November 4th, 2009 at 9:21 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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My First Congestion

Another delight from Copenhagenize.

Perhaps one could, with Lego Mindstorms, create an electronic congestion charging cordon?

Posted on Wednesday, November 4th, 2009 at 9:14 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Pay-as-you-Drive Creeps Ahead in California

The Sacramento Bee notes the state’s insurance commissioner is drafting regulations.

A pay-as-you-drive study last year by the Brookings Institution, a public policy research group, concluded that driving would drop by 8 percent nationwide – and oil consumption by 4 percent – if all motorists paid for car insurance by the mile.

Two-thirds of U.S. households would save money – averaging $270 per car – under pay-as-you-drive policies, which routinely would be adjusted for rural vs. urban driving, the Brookings study concluded.

If some cars are being charged less, presumably some will be charged more, based on more miles driven, but that issue hasn’t been discussed as much. But bringing any granularity to the incredibly inexact pricing regiment of auto insurance is welcome.

(thanks Robert)

Posted on Wednesday, November 4th, 2009 at 9:07 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Do Men and Women Commit Different Types of Driving Violations?

This was a question posed to me by an audience member at a recent speaking engagement, based on his observation at his small town’s local courthouse that males seemed to predominate on the speeding offenses, while women seemed more prone to things like traffic signal/stop sign violations.

It’s an interesting question, one that, like many things in traffic, I imagine is difficult to tease out of the official citation statistics (as that wouldn’t give us the exposure data, among other things).

It did put me in mind of a recent study, “Committing driving violations: An observational study comparing city, town and village,” by Tova Rosenbloom and colleagues at Israel’s Bar Ilan University, published in the most recent Journal of Safety Science. This paper looked at five traffic violations (“(a) not wearing a seat belt (seat belt violation); (b) not using a safety seat for a child (safety seat violation for children); (c) not using a speaker while speaking on the phone (on-phone violation); (d) failing to comply with a ‘give way’ sign (‘give way’ sign violation); and (e) stopping in an undesignated area (undesignated stop violation).”) in three settings: City, town, small village.

There was a clear gender effect, but essentially it was that men were more likely to commit violations of any type than women (I didn’t see it gender data coded by violation type), which is not surprising.

But there was another, perhaps more interesting finding: The highest level of violations came not in a city like Tel Aviv, but in the villages (which had around 3,000 and 800 residents).

The researchers speculated a number of reasons: The more complex city driving environment challenges drivers and forces them to pay more attention (they also feel it to be riskier, even if it actually isn’t, which explains greater seat-belt compliance) there may be less law enforcement in the smaller areas, the drivers in the small towns may be more likely to be local drivers (whose familiarity with the road environment breeds a relaxed attitude toward whatever signals and regulations are in force).

And if anyone has seen any studies examining violation types by gender, please advise.

Posted on Wednesday, November 4th, 2009 at 9:00 am by: Tom Vanderbilt
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Traffic Tom Vanderbilt

How We Drive is the companion blog to Tom Vanderbilt’s New York Times bestselling book, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us), published by Alfred A. Knopf in the U.S. and Canada, Penguin in the U.K, and in languages other than English by a number of other fine publishers worldwide.

Please send tips, news, research papers, links, photos (bad road signs, outrageous bumper stickers, spectacularly awful acts of driving or parking or anything traffic-related), or ideas for my Transport column to me at:

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Upcoming Talks

April 9, 2008.
California Office of Traffic Safety Summit
San Francisco, CA.

May 19, 2009
University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies
Bloomington, MN

June 23, 2009
Driving Assessment 2009
Big Sky, Montana

June 26, 2009
PRI World Congress
Rotterdam, The Netherlands

June 27, 2009
Day of Architecture
Utrecht, The Netherlands

July 13, 2009
Association of Transportation Safety Information Professionals (ATSIP)
Phoenix, AZ.

August 12-14
Texas Department of Transportation “Save a Life Summit”
San Antonio, Texas

September 2, 2009
Governors Highway Safety Association Annual Meeting
Savannah, Georgia

September 11, 2009
Oregon Transportation Summit
Portland, Oregon

October 8
Honda R&D Americas
Raymond, Ohio

October 10-11
INFORMS Roundtable
San Diego, CA

October 21, 2009
California State University-San Bernardino, Leonard Transportation Center
San Bernardino, CA

November 5
Southern New England Planning Association Planning Conference
Uncasville, Connecticut

January 6
Texas Transportation Forum
Austin, TX

January 19
Yale University
(with Donald Shoup; details to come)

Monday, February 22
Yale University School of Architecture
Eero Saarinen Lecture

Friday, March 19
University of Delaware
Delaware Center for Transportation

April 5-7
University of Utah
Salt Lake City
McMurrin Lectureship

April 19
International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association (Organization Management Workshop)
Austin, Texas

Monday, April 26
Edmonton Traffic Safety Conference
Edmonton, Canada

Monday, June 7
Canadian Association of Road Safety Professionals
Niagara Falls, Ontario

Wednesday, July 6
Fondo de Prevención Vial
Bogotá, Colombia

Tuesday, August 31
Royal Automobile Club
Perth, Australia

Wednesday, September 1
Australasian Road Safety Conference
Canberra, Australia

Wednesday, September 22

Wisconsin Department of Transportation’s
Traffic Incident Management Enhancement Program
Statewide Conference
Wisconsin Dells, WI

Wednesday, October 20
Rutgers University
Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation
Piscataway, NJ

Tuesday, March 8, 2011
Ontario Injury Prevention Resource Centre
Injury Prevention Forum

Monday, May 2
Idaho Public Driver Education Conference
Boise, Idaho

Tuesday, June 2, 2011
California Association of Cities
Costa Mesa, California

Sunday, August 21, 2011
American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Attitudes: Iniciativa Social de Audi
Madrid, Spain

April 16, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Gardens Theatre, QUT
Brisbane, Australia

April 17, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Centennial Plaza, Sydney
Sydney, Australia

April 19, 2012
Institute for Sensible Transport Seminar
Melbourne Town Hall
Melbourne, Australia

January 30, 2013
University of Minnesota City Engineers Association Meeting
Minneapolis, MN

January 31, 2013
Metropolis and Mobile Life
School of Architecture, University of Toronto

February 22, 2013
ISL Engineering
Edmonton, Canada

March 1, 2013
Australian Road Summit
Melbourne, Australia

May 8, 2013
New York State Association of
Transportation Engineers
Rochester, NY

August 18, 2013 “Ingenuity” Conference
San Francisco, CA

September 26, 2013
TransComm 2013
(Meeting of American Association
of State Highway and Transportation
Officials’ Subcommittee on Transportation
Grand Rapids MI



November 2009

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